The concept of "Humanism" first entered the vocabulary of intellectual discourse in the West during the Renaissance period when it was used to denote the revival of interest in the ancient writings of Greek and Roman philosophers. Ever since the conversion of Constantine to Christianity the Christian Church had severely suppressed all alternative views and this extended to the ancient classical writings.
Indignation is an insufficient alternative to the brutal secularization of the college curriculum. But some conservative commentators, after narrating all the outrageous anecdotes, seem baffled for a positive program of cultural education, and others even seem positively anticultural—as though willing to admit that the ideologies of the secularists are what constitute the humanities.
The opposite is, of course, the actual case: They have always had as their goal the reconciliation between human solidarity on the one hand and the dignity of individual, concrete persons, situations, and facts on the other.
This is why we urgently need college courses today on Christian humanism.
Some students will undoubtedly mistrust the humanism of such classes, and many more will mistrust their Christianity. But Christian humanism is properly nothing but a reclaiming of the basic inheritance of our history and the natural connection of culture with the religious vistas of the human being.
The current separation is the artificial relation, not the other way around. My own suggestions for a syllabus of Christian humanism are certainly not cast in stone. I mean them more as a spur to further reflection than as a map.
I, for one, would try to tell my students most of the following. The Lucan text is addressed to a more cultivated public than the other synoptic gospels; the Johannine Gospel, too, is a highly intellectual text, combining the spiritual, symbolic, and factual.
Once it became apparent that the Second Coming was not as near as many early Christians had supposed, it became imperative for Christians to construct a framework for handling the world and its culture, and it was primarily to these Gospels that they turned.
The rudiments of the consequent Christian philosophy, theology, and art were already in place by the late third century: Christians could boast of Origen, for instance, a powerful intellect by any standard. But many Mediterranean intellectuals nonetheless feared that Christianity would endanger the aesthetic amenities and social balances that had been assured by Roman religion, and it is as though the entire Christian world collectively decided to meet its adversaries on their own ground.
We witness between the years and an extraordinary explosion of Christian intellectual achievement. While Jerome was translating the Bible into Latin, Athanasius was helping formulate the Profession of Faith, and the first great Church orator, John Chrysostom, was preaching.
Toward the end of this century Augustine began to acquire his reputation, while in Milan Ambrose displayed his extraordinary combination of managerial power and spiritual depth.
This appropriation of Neoplatonism, culminating with the Pseudo-Dionysius and Maximus the Confessor, allowed Christian thinkers to incorporate into their thought such Neoplatonic features as the primacy of beauty and the metaphysics of descent and ascent, and thereby to lay the philosophical foundations of nearly all future Christian humanism.
But the pattern of appropriation is what I would want my students to notice most, for it is the typical and fundamental gesture of Christian humanism: The Middle Ages brought about a great flowering of Christian culture:Humanism rejected comparative psychology (the study of animals) because it does not tell us anything about the unique properties of human beings: Humanism views human beings as fundamentally different from other animals, mainly because humans are conscious beings capable of .
Theory, Feminism, and Feminist Theory. humanism and “speaking as a human being” for this reason. But you have to have some begin to create feminist theory which included both an analysis of sexism, strategies for challenging patriarchy, and new models of social interaction.
Substantive issues in existentialism Fundamental concepts and contrasts.
Both the ontology and manner of human existence are of concern to existentialism.. Ontic structure of human existence. The fundamental characteristic of existentialist ontology is the primacy that study of the nature of existence gives to the concept of possibility.
existentialism is humanism, Sartre (Flynn, ) declares, “it places the human being at the center of its attention and the apex of its value hierarchy”.
He believes that individual‟s freedom is. The behaviorist observation of verbal behavior emphasizes the functional nature of language and the continuation of rule ascendancy in human behavior. The major concepts and theories within the school of behaviorism include cognitive psychology, constructivism, social constructivism, experimental learning, multiple intelligence, and situated.
He is born unformed–carrying the predispositions of human nature, but without the specific manifestations that can only be set by upbringing and education. He is the Enlightenment’s man of hope, whom learning and compassion might mold to goodness and wisdom.