The conductor consists of seven strands of steel surrounded by four layers of aluminium. High-voltage overhead conductors are not covered by insulation. The conductor material is nearly always an aluminum alloy, made into several strands and possibly reinforced with steel strands. Copper was sometimes used for overhead transmission, but aluminum is lighter, yields only marginally reduced performance and costs much less.
It should be understood that the appended drawings are not necessarily to scale, presenting a somewhat simplified representation of various preferred features illustrative of the basic principles of the invention. The specific design features of the electric actuator as disclosed herein, including, for example, specific dimensions, orientations, and shapes will be determined by the particular intended application and use environment.
Certain features of the illustrated embodiments have been enlarged or distorted relative to others to facilitate visualization and clear understanding. In particular, thin features may be thickened, for example, for clarity or illustration. All references to direction and position, unless otherwise indicated, refer to the orientation of the electric actuator illustrated in the drawings.
In general, up or upward refers to an upward direction generally in the plane of the paper in FIG. Also in general, forward or front refers to a direction toward the front of the motor vehicle and rearward or rear refers to a direction toward the back of the motor vehicle.
The following detailed discussion of various alternative and preferred embodiments will illustrate the general principles of the invention with reference to an electronically controlled automatic transmission for a motor vehicle. Other embodiments suitable for other applications will be apparent to those skilled in the art given the benefit of this disclosure.
Referring now to the drawings, FIG. While the illustrated embodiments of the present invention are particularly adapted for use with an automobile, it is noted that the present invention can be utilized with any motor vehicle including trucks, sport utility vehicles, buses, vans, recreational vehicles, earth moving equipment and the like, off road vehicles such as dune buggies and the like, air borne vehicles, and water borne vehicles.
The illustrated automatic transmission system 10 includes an automatic transmission 12, an electric actuator 14 which actuates the transmission 12, an electronic control unit or module ECM 16 in communication with the electric actuator 14 for controlling the actuator 14 to selectively shift the Common electric power transmission mechanisms 12, and a manual back-up shifter The transmission 12 has a plurality of gears and an input shaft or lever that pivots or rotates a detent 19 FIG.
The input lever typically projects laterally outward from a housing 20 of the transmission 12 while the detent 19 typically is located within the transmission housing Common electric power transmission mechanisms illustrated electric actuator 14 is secured to the transmission housing 20 and is operably coupled to the transmission input lever for rotating the detent 19 in a desired manner to select a desired one of the gears in the transmission The ECM 16 is preferably a computer unit or module having processing means and memory means.
The ECM 16 is preferably the central processing unit for the motor vehicle but alternatively can be a separate stand-alone unit.
The ECM 16 is electrically connected to the electric actuator 14 in a suitable manner such as, for example, wires or cables. The ECM 16 is also electrically connected to a source of electric power in the motor vehicle such as, for example, a battery 22, in a suitable manner such as, for example, wires or cables The ECM is additionally electrically connected to a manual gear selector or shifter 26 and a brake interlock switch 28 each in a suitable manner such as, for example, wires or cables 30, The manual gear shifter 26 is used by the operator to manually input a desired one of the transmission gears.
The operator positions the manual gear shifter 26 in one of a plurality of fixed positions indicating one of the plurality of transmission gears of the automatic transmission 12 such as, for example, park Preverse Rneutral Ndrive Dlow 3 3low 2 2and low 1 as best shown in FIG.
It is noted that the manual gear shifter 26 can be of the illustrated lever type, or can alternatively be of a push button type, or any other suitable type.
The brake interlock switch 28 is used by the ECM 16 to ensure that the operator is depressing a brake pedal 34 of the motor vehicle before the ECM 16 permits the transmission gears to be shifted out of the park gear or condition.
The illustrated ECM 16 is also electrically connected to an ignition switch 36 in a suitable manner such as wires The ECM 16 receives signals from the manual gear shifter 26, the interlock switch 28, and the ignition switch 36 and sends signals to the electric actuator 14 as described in more detail hereinafter.
The manual back-up shifter 18 is operatively connected to an attach pin 40 with a suitable cable 42 such as, for example, Bowden or a push-pull cable or the like. The attach pin 40 is preferably located outside the electric actuator 14 to ease assembly. The manual back-up shifter 18 enables the operator to manually shift the transmission 12 to a desired gear such as, for example, neutral in the event that one or more components of the electronic control system 10 fails or the motor vehicle power system fails such that the vehicle operator is unable to switch the transmission gears.
As best shown in FIGS. The illustrated actuator housing 44 is secured to the transmission housing 20 by a plurality of threaded fasteners 45 but it is noted that any other suitable means for securing the actuator housing 44 can be alternatively be utilized.
The illustrated actuator housing 44 has a cover 46 which cooperates with the actuator housing 44 to enclose and contain the various components of the electric actuator It is noted that the actuator housing 44 can have any suitable shape and can be formed of any suitable material.
The electric actuator 14 includes a high-speed DC electric motor 48, a gear set or gear train 50 for reducing speed and increasing torque output of the electric motor 48, an output linkage or adaptor 52 for connection to the transmission input lever and thus the transmission detent 19 to transfer rotary motion therebetween, a position sensor 54 for indicating motion or position of the electric actuator 14, and a lock or release mechanism 56 operable between first and second positions for selectively connecting and releasing the adapter 52 to and from the electric motor An output shaft 58 of the electric motor 48 is drivably connected to the gear set.
The illustrated output shaft 58 is provided with a worm 60 that drivingly engages a worm gear 62, the worm gear 62 transfers rotational motion to a coaxially mounted sun gear 64 that in turn operatively engages a plurality of planetary gears 66 located within a ring gear The planetary gears 66 are operatively connected to the adapter 52 to transfer rotational movement from the planetary gears to the adapter 52 when the ring gear 68 is locked or held against rotation.
An input signal from the ECM 16 energizes the electric motor 48 to cause the gear set 50 to rotate.Power System Protective Relaying: basic concepts, industrial-grade devices, and communication mechanisms Principal Investigators: Rujiroj Leelaruji Dr.
Luigi Vanfretti Aﬃliation: KTH Royal Institute of Technology Electric Power Systems Department munications technology used in today’s power transmission systems. This report is. Home > electric motor speed reducer > Reducer is a common power transmission mechanism, in a variety of mechanical transmission systems have applications.
Reducer is a common power transmission mechanism, in a variety of mechanical transmission systems have applications. Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, such as a power plant, to an electrical substation.
The interconnected lines which facilitate this movement are known as a transmission network. How the electric transmission system works. Typical transmission line structures • How dependable electricity reaches you. Transmission lines are sets of wires, called conductors, that carry electric power from generating plants to the substations that deliver power to customers.
Electric power transmission is the bulk movement of electrical energy from a generating site, Voltage and frequency can be used as signalling mechanisms to balance the loads. Leased circuits from common carriers are not preferred since availability is not under control of the electric power transmission organization.
Conventional gear/belt transmissions are not the only mechanism for speed/torque adaptation. Alternative mechanisms include torque converters and power transformation (e.g. diesel-electric transmission and hydraulic drive system).
Hybrid configurations also exist.