Section 03 35 19 — Colored Concrete Finishing. Section 03 30 00 — Cast-in-Place Concrete.
Long life in severe environments Depending on its implementation, environmental  Ultra-high-performance concrete[ edit ] Ultra-high-performance concrete is a new type of concrete that is being developed by agencies concerned with infrastructure protection.
UHPC is characterized by being a steel fibre-reinforced cement composite material with compressive strengths in excess of MPa, up to and possibly exceeding MPa. Note that there is no large aggregate. The current types in production Ductal, Taktl, etc. Ongoing research into UHPC failure via tensile and shear failure is being conducted by multiple government agencies and universities around the world.
Micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete[ edit ] Micro-reinforced ultra-high-performance concrete is the next generation of UHPC.
In addition to high compressive strength, durability and abrasion resistance of UHPC, micro-reinforced UHPC is characterized by extreme ductility, energy absorption and resistance to chemicals, water and temperature.
The performance of the discontinuous and scattered fibers in UHPC is relatively unpredictable. Micro-reinforced UHPC is used in blast, ballistic and earthquake resistant construction, structural and architectural overlays, and complex facades.
Poor compaction occurred mostly because of the need for speedy construction in the s and s. Hajime Okamura envisioned the need for concrete which is highly workable and does not rely on the mechanical force for compaction.
During the s, Okamura and his Ph. SCC is known as self-consolidating concrete in the United States. SCC is characterized by the following: In the precast concrete industry in the U. This emerging technology is made possible by the use of polycarboxylates plasticizer instead of older naphthalene-based polymers, and viscosity modifiers to address aggregate segregation.
Vacuum concrete[ edit ] Vacuum concrete, made by using steam to produce a vacuum inside a concrete mixing truck to release air bubbles inside the concrete, is being researched. The idea is that the steam displaces the air normally over the concrete. When the steam condenses into water it will create a low pressure over the concrete that will pull air from the concrete.
This will make the concrete stronger due to there being less air in the mixture. A drawback is that the mixing has to be done in an airtight container. Vacuum concrete stiffens very rapidly so that the formworks can be removed within 30 minutes of casting even on columns of 20 ft.
This is of considerable economic value, particularly in a precast factory as the forms can be reused at frequent intervals. These characteristics are of special importance in the construction of concrete structures which are to be in contact with flowing water at a high velocity.
It bonds well to old concrete and can, therefore, be used for resurfacing road slabs and other repair work. Shotcrete Shotcrete also known by the trade name Gunite uses compressed air to shoot concrete onto or into a frame or structure. The greatest advantage of the process is that shotcrete can be applied overhead or on vertical surfaces without formwork.
It is often used for concrete repairs or placement on bridges, dams, pools, and on other applications where forming is costly or material handling and installation is difficult. Shotcrete is frequently used against vertical soil or rock surfaces, as it eliminates the need for formwork.
It is sometimes used for rock support, especially in tunneling. Shotcrete is also used for applications where seepage is an issue to limit the amount of water entering a construction site due to a high water table or other subterranean sources. This type of concrete is often used as a quick fix for weathering for loose soil types in construction zones.
There are two application methods for shotcrete. The water needed for the hydration is added at the nozzle. The mixes are pumped through the hoses.
At the nozzle compressed air is added for spraying. For both methods additives such as accelerators and fiber reinforcement may be used.
This meant that lime could be used in a much wider variety of applications than previously such as floors, vaults or domes. Over the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in using lime for these applications again.
This is because of environmental benefits and potential health benefits, when used with other lime products. It is also considered to be more environmentally friendly because of its ability, through carbonation, to re-absorb its own weight in Carbon Dioxide compensating for that given off during burning.A AASHTO—American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials.
ABUTMENT—Supporting substructure at ends of bridges. ACI—American Concrete Institute. Ultra-high-performance concrete. Ultra-high-performance concrete is a new type of concrete that is being developed by agencies concerned with infrastructure protection.
UHPC is characterized by being a steel fibre-reinforced cement composite material with compressive strengths in excess of MPa, up to and possibly exceeding MPa.
The American Concrete Institute (ACI) is a leading authority and resource worldwide for the development and distribution of consensus-based standards, technical resources, educational programs, certification programs, and proven expertise for individuals and organizations involved in concrete design, construction, and materials, who share a commitment to pursuing the best use of concrete.
Design of Reinforced Concrete (Eighth Edition) by Jack C. McCormac and Russell H. Brown is an excellent book. I am a registered mechanical engineer and am trying to expand my understanding of reinforced concrete. 1.
INTRODUCTION. The use of bamboo as reinforcement in portland cement concrete has been studied extensively by Clemson Agricultural College.(ref 1) Bamboo has been used as a construction material in certain areas for centuries, but its application as reinforcement in concrete had received little attention until the Clemson study.
Camp Logan Cement Works, Inc. is one of the largest producers of precast concrete step treads in the United States. Our precast cement steps .