You can find out more about how to use parenthetical references.
Below are standard formats and examples for basic bibliographic information recommended by the Modern Language Association MLA. For more information on the MLA format, see http: Basics Your list of works cited should begin at the end of the paper on a new page with the centered title, Works Cited.
Alphabetize the entries in your list by the author's last name, using the letter-by-letter system ignore spaces and other punctuation. If the author's name is unknown, alphabetize by the title, ignoring any A, An, or The. For dates, spell out the names of months in the text of your paper, but abbreviate them in the list of works cited, except for May, June, and July.
Use either the day-month-year style 22 July or the month-day-year style July 22, and be consistent. With the month-day-year style, be sure to add a comma after the year unless another punctuation mark goes there. When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics.
If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in italics as they are below.
Always check with your instructor regarding their preference of using italics or underlining. Our examples use italics.
Capitalization, Abbreviation, and Punctuation The MLA guidelines specify using title case capitalization - capitalize the first words, the last words, and all principal words, including those that follow hyphens in compound terms. Use lowercase abbreviations to identify the parts of a work e.
Whenever possible, use the appropriate abbreviated forms for the publisher's name Random instead of Random House. Separate author, title, and publication information with a period followed by one space. Use a colon and a space to separate a title from a subtitle.
Include other kinds of punctuation only if it is part of the title.
Use quotation marks to indicate the titles of short works appearing within larger works e. Also use quotation marks for titles of unpublished works and songs. Format Examples Books Format: Author's last name, first name. Publishing company, publication date. Vanishing Wildlife of North America.
National Geographic Society, A History of the Heroes of the Imagination. Searles, Baird, and Martin Last. A Reader's Guide to Science Fiction. Facts on File, Inc.
If the dictionary or encyclopedia arranges articles alphabetically, you may omit volume and page numbers. Pettingill, Olin Sewall, Jr. Levinson, David, and Melvin M. Encyclopedia of Cultural Anthropology. If an edition is named on the masthead, add a comma after the date and specify the edition.
Website or Webpage Format: Author's last name, first name if available. Electronic publication information Date of publication or of the latest update, and name of any sponsoring institution or organization. If you cannot find some of this information, cite what is available.
When printing this document, you may NOT modify it in any way.Bibliography in its systematic pursuit of understanding the past and the present through written and printed documents describes a way and means of extracting information from this material.
Bibliographers are interested in comparing versions of texts to each other rather than in interpreting their meaning or assessing their significance. How to write a bibliography for websites What is a bibliography for websites?
A bibliography for websites is a list of works cited from the internet that is included at the end of your essay.
When reports were written on typewriters, the names of publications were underlined because most typewriters had no way to print italics.
If you write a bibliography by hand, you should still underline the names of publications. But, if you use a computer, then publication names should be in .
A bibliography is a list of books, scholarly articles, speeches, private records, diaries, interviews, laws, letters, websites, and other sources you use when researching a topic and writing a paper.
The bibliography appears at the end. The main purpose of a bibliography entry is to give credit to. Watch video · An annotated bibliography is an organized list of sources (like a reference list). It differs from a straightforward bibliography in that each reference is followed by a paragraph length annotation, usually – words in length.
As stated above, the bibliography (sometimes known as a works cited page or a reference page) is a section that lists out all of the sources that the author consulted, quoted, or referenced directly or .