Mad cow disease research paper

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Mad cow disease research paper

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In 85 percent of cases, CJD is sporadic. There are no apparent risk factors. Inherited CJD Between 5 percent and 10 percent of cases are inherited.

They happen when a change occurs in the gene that controls the formation of prion proteins. There may be a family history of CJD, or a mutation may occur in the egg or sperm cells, putting offspring at risk of developing the disease.

Prions do not contain genetic information, and they do not need genes to reproduce themselves, but a mutation in the gene for the body's normal prion protein can cause prions to act abnormally. Several different mutations in the prion gene have been identified.

The particular mutation found in each family affects how frequently the disease appears, and which symptoms are most noticeable. Not everyone with mutations in the prion protein gene develop CJD.

Prion malfunction has been linked to CJD. Transmission was thought to be related to food consumption. This variant tended to affect younger patients, and it also lasted for longer. BSE affects a number of speciesincluding cattle, humans, and cats. Some scientists believe that an unusual "slow virus" or another organism causes CJD, but they have not yet isolated a specific virus or organism in people with the disease.

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The agent that causes CJD has several characteristics that are not usual in viruses and bacteria. These include the long incubation period, the fact that it is difficult to kill, and that it does not appear to contain any genetic information in the form of nucleic acids, DNA or RNA.

Prions are not alive, but they are proteins with abnormal structures that expand in the brain. This expansion damages brain tissue and causes the characteristic symptoms of CJD.

Mad cow disease research paper

Diagnosis There is no test to confirm the diagnosis of CJD. Only a brain biopsy can do this, and this is too risky for the patient while they are alive. Tests can help to find the most likely cause.

A physical examination will look for muscle spasms and check the patient's reflexes. These may be more reactive than normal. Muscles may be excessively toned or withered, depending on where the disease affects the brain.

A vision or eye test may detect partial blindness that the patient had not previously noticed. An electroencephalogram EEG can reveal abnormal electrical impulses.

A lumbar puncture, or spinal tap, can test spinal fluid to rule out other causes of dementia. It can show if there is an infection or increased pressure in the central nervous system CNS.

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If the protein is found in the fluid, and the person is showing typical symptoms, there is a high chance that the person has CJD. Brain biopsies after death show that the brain tissue is spongy, with tiny holes visible where clumps of nerve cells have been destroyed.

Treatment There is no cure for CJD, and no medications can help to control it or slow disease progression. Treatment aims to relieve symptoms and make the patient as comfortable as possible.

Opiate drugs can help to relieve pain. Clonazepam and sodium valproate may help relieve involuntary movements, such as muscle twitching. In the later stages, the patient must be moved frequently to help prevent bedsores. A catheter can be used to drain urine, and feeding is by intravenous fluids. Prevention Preventive measures include sterilization of all medical equipment to kill any organisms that may cause the disease, and not accepting cornea donations from people with a history of diagnosed or possible CJD.

Most countries now have strict guidelines for management of infected cows and restrictions regarding feed, to avoid the potential for transmission of other forms of TSE to humans. People who are exposed to individuals with a diagnosis of CJD are advised to follow some guidelines.What is Mad Cow Disease?

Mad Cow Disease is the common term for Bovine Spongiform Encepholopathy (BSE), a progressive neurological disorder of cattle which can be transmitted to other species, including humans.

The Body Snatchers by Susan Reed (Edited adaptation by Ken Adachi)

A cow is elementary. Milk and butter and cheese from cows fill the dairy shelves in supermarkets, and the meat section is stacked with cuts of cow. The fast-food restaurants of this world are archipelagoes of ground cow.

And, lately, much of the anxiety people feel about life, and especially about. Essay Mad Cow Disease Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), better know as Mad cow disease is a relatively new disease. Most sources state that BSE first showed up in Great Britain in [Dealler p.5] but some say it popped up in [Greger p.1].

Mad Cow Disease Paper Mad Cow Disease, or bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), is a fatal brain disorder disease of cattle that affect the central nervous system and causes staggering and agitation.

Mad cow disease research paper

Some unknown transmissible agent causes mad Cow Disease. Currently, the most accepted theory is that the agent is a modified form of a normal .

Prion diseases; Microscopic "holes" are characteristic in prion-affected tissue sections, causing the tissue to develop a "spongy" architecture. Posted by Mama To Many (Tennessee, US) on 08/14/ My father has been taking mg of "no flush" niacin for 4 months.

(I would like to see him taking more, but he takes a lot of medication and even getting in that one pill a day is a step in the right direction.).

Essay on Science Reports. Research Paper on Mad Cow Disease