Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers. In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics. End this element with a period.
These two systems are also sometimes referred to as Chicago-style citations, because they are the same as the ones presented in The Chicago Manual of Style.
If you already know which system to use, follow one of the links above to see sample citations for a variety of common sources. Notes and Bibliography or Author-Date?
In this system, sources are cited in numbered footnotes or endnotes.
Each note corresponds to a raised superscript number in the text. Sources are also usually listed in a separate bibliography. This system is very flexible and can easily accommodate a wide variety of sources.
Each citation in the text matches up with an entry in a reference list, where full bibliographic information is provided. Aside from the way they cite sources in the text, the two styles are very similar.
You will also find more information here. For a more detailed description of the styles and many more examples, see chapters 16 and 17 of the 9th edition of the Turabian manual for notes style and chapters 18 and 19 for author-date style.If your instructor has specific requirements for the format of your research paper, check them before preparing your final draft.
When you submit your paper, be sure to keep a secure copy. Additional notes or comments.
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