The image was assembled from hundreds of separate exposures taken during 10 consecutive days in December The Hubble Deep Field, released inshows a bewildering array of almost 3, galaxies, challenging the idea that galaxies can be neatly classified as "spirals" or "ellipticals. They not only found the original image representative of the universe, but bagged a quasar in the process. That served as a cosmological lighthouse to illuminate matter between the quasar and Earth.
History of the telescope The telescope is more a discovery of optical craftsmen than an invention of a scientist. The invention is credited to the spectacle makers Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen in Middelburgand the instrument-maker and optician Jacob Metius of Alkmaar.
Galileo's telescope used Hans Lippershey's design of a convex objective lens and a concave eye lensand this design is now called a Galilean telescope.
Johannes Kepler proposed an improvement on the design  that used a convex eyepieceoften called the Keplerian Telescope. The next big step in the development of refractors was the advent of the Achromatic lens in the early 18th century,  which corrected the chromatic aberration in Keplerian telescopes up to that time—allowing for much shorter instruments with much larger objectives.
For reflecting telescopeswhich use a curved mirror in place of the objective lens, theory preceded practice.
The theoretical basis for curved mirrors behaving similar to lenses was probably established by Alhazenwhose theories had been widely disseminated in Latin translations of his work. Isaac Newton has been generally credited with constructing the first practical reflecting telescopes, the Newtonian telescopein  although due to their difficulty of construction and the poor performance of the speculum metal mirrors used it took over years for reflectors to become popular.
Many of the advances in reflecting telescopes included the perfection of parabolic mirror fabrication in the 18th century,  silver coated glass mirrors in the 19th century, long-lasting aluminum coatings in the 20th century,  segmented mirrors to allow larger diameters, and active optics to compensate for gravitational deformation.
A midth century innovation was catadioptric telescopes such as the Schmidt camerawhich uses both a lens corrector plate and mirror as primary optical elements, mainly used for wide field imaging without spherical aberration.
|10 Fascinating Facts About the Hubble Space Telescope - HISTORY||Conception, design and aim[ edit ] Proposals and precursors[ edit ] Astronaut Owen Garriott works next to Skylab's manned solar space observatory, InHermann Oberth —considered a father of modern rocketry, along with Robert H.|
|Hubble history: From major flaw to perfection||First, the angular resolution the smallest separation at which objects can be clearly distinguished would be limited only by diffractionrather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.|
|Hubble Space Telescope - Wikipedia||December 14,|
|Student Features||More than just pretty pictures, the dozens of terabytes of data collected has provided insight into the universe, from objects as close as the moon to the most remote galaxies, with incredible photos of supernovas and nebulas in between.|
|A space telescope avoids frustrating problems such as cloudy and misty observing nights, the twinkling of stars even on clear nights and absorption of the ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum.|
The late 20th century has seen the development of adaptive optics and space telescopes to overcome the problems of astronomical seeing. For specific designs of telescope, see Reflecting telescopeRefracting telescopeand Catadioptric. The basic scheme is that the primary light-gathering element the objective 1 the convex lens or concave mirror used to gather the incoming lightfocuses that light from the distant object 4 to a focal plane where it forms a real image 5.
This image may be recorded or viewed through an eyepiece 2which acts like a magnifying glass. The eye 3 then sees an inverted magnified virtual image 6 of the object.
Schematic of a Keplerian refracting telescope. The arrow at 4 is a notional representation of the original image; the arrow at 5 is the inverted image at the focal plane; the arrow at 6 is the virtual image that forms in the viewer's visual sphere. The red rays produce the midpoint of the arrow; two other sets of rays each black produce its head and tail.
Inverted images[ edit ] Most telescope designs produce an inverted image at the focal plane; these are referred to as inverting telescopes. In fact, the image is both turned upside down and reversed left to right, so that altogether it is rotated by degrees from the object orientation.
In astronomical telescopes the rotated view is normally not corrected, since it does not affect how the telescope is used. However, a mirror diagonal is often used to place the eyepiece in a more convenient viewing location, and in that case the image is erect, but still reversed left to right.
In terrestrial telescopes such as spotting scopesmonoculars and binocularsprisms e. There are telescope designs that do not present an inverted image such as the Galilean refractor and the Gregorian reflector.
These are referred to as erecting telescopes.No matter how much longer the Hubble Space Telescope will last, its place in history is assured. As it begins its 25th year in orbit on Friday, Hubble already has proven to be among the most.
A quarter of a century after its mission began, get the lowdown on the telescope that helped revolutionize humanity’s understanding of the cosmos.
A quarter of a century after its mission began. Beyond Hubble: The Next Generation Space Telescope Hubble's important mission will come to an end one day in the future. But the telescope's ultimate retirement will not signal the end of . The history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back as far as , to the astronomer Lyman Spitzer's paper "Astronomical advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory".
In it, he discussed the two main advantages that a space-based observatory would have over ground-based telescopes. Since its launch in , the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) has provided a dazzling array of images that have awed and inspired the public.
More than just pretty pictures, the dozens of terabytes. History: How Hubble Came About. Although the Hubble Space Telescope was down-sized to metres the project started to attract significant attention from astronomers. installing a new main camera and an instrument designed to help answer profound questions about the large-scale structure and origins of the cosmos.