Autodidacticism also autodidactism is a term used to describe self-directed learning.
One definition is that peace is a state of balance and understanding in yourself and between others, where respect is gained by the acceptance of differences, tolerance persists, conflicts are resolved through dialog, people's rights are respected and their voices are heard, and everyone is at their highest point of serenity without social tension.
The iterated game hypotheses was originally used by academic groups and computer simulations to study possible strategies of cooperation and aggression.
One of the well studied strategies that acquired wealth more rapidly was based on Genghis Khani. This led, in contrast, to the development of what's known as the "provokable nice guy strategy ", a peace-maker until attacked, improved upon merely to win by occasional forgiveness even when attacked.
There exists a strategy of multiple players who can continue to gain wealth cooperating with each other while bleeding a constantly aggressive player. Balance of power international relations The classical "realist" position is that the key to promoting order between states, and so of increasing the chances of peace, is the maintenance of a balance of power between states - a situation where no state is so dominant that it can "lay down the law to the rest".
A related approach - more in the tradition of Hugo Grotius than Thomas Hobbes - was articulated by the so-called " English school of international relations theory " such as Martin Wight in his book Power Politicsand Hedley Bull in The Anarchical Society As the maintenance of a balance of power could in some circumstances require a willingness to go to war, some critics saw the idea of a balance of power as promoting war rather than promoting peace.
This was a radical critique of those supporters of the Allied and Associated Powers who justified entry into World War I on the grounds that it was necessary to preserve the balance of power in Europe from a German bid for hegemony.
In the second half of the 20th century, and especially during the cold wara particular form of balance of power - mutual nuclear deterrence - emerged as a widely held doctrine on the key to peace between the great powers.
Critics argued that the development of nuclear stockpiles increased the chances of war rather than peace, and that the "nuclear umbrella" made it "safe" for smaller wars e. Democratic peace theory[ edit ] The democratic peace theory holds that democracies will never go to war with one another.
Free trade, interdependence and globalization[ edit ] It was a central tenet of classical liberalismfor example among English liberal thinkers of the late 19th and early 20th century, that free trade promoted peace.
For example, the Cambridge economist John Maynard Keynes said that he was "brought up" on this idea and held it unquestioned until at least the s.
He made this argument in These ideas have again come to prominence among liberal internationalists during the globalization of the late 20th and early 21st century. Socialism and managed capitalism[ edit ] Socialist, communist, and left-wing liberal writers of the 19th and 20th centuries e.
HobsonJohn Strachey argued that capitalism caused war e. This led some to argue that international socialism was the key to peace. However, in response to such writers in the s who argued that capitalism caused war, the economist John Maynard Keynes argued that managed capitalism could promote peace.
This theory posits in part that peace is part of a triad, which also includes justice and wholeness or well-beingan interpretation consonant with scriptural scholarly interpretations of the meaning of the early Hebrew word shalom.
Furthermore, the consortium have integrated Galtung's teaching of the meanings of the terms peacemaking, peacekeeping, and peacebuilding, to also fit into a triadic and interdependent formulation or structure.
Vermont Quaker John V. Wilmerding posits five stages of growth applicable to individuals, communities, and societies, whereby one transcends first the 'surface' awareness that most people have of these kinds of issues, emerging successively into acquiescence, pacifism, passive resistance, active resistance, and finally into active peace, dedicating themselves to peacemaking, peacekeeping or peace building.
One of the most important early exponents of this view was Sir Alfred Zimmernfor example in his book The League of Nations and the Rule of Law. Rather, they promote the idea of many peaces. They argue that since no singular, correct definition of peace can exist, peace should be perceived as a plurality.
This post-modern understanding of peace s was based on the philosophy of Jean Francois Lyotard. It served as a fundament for the more recent concept of trans-rational peace s and elicitive conflict transformation.
In Dietrich enlarged his approach of the many peaces to the so-called five families of peace interpretations: Peace Day is commemorated each year at the United Nations, and by every organization that is associated with the United Nations.
Peace and conflict studies Peace and conflict studies is an academic field which identifies and analyses violent and nonviolent behaviours, as well as the structural mechanisms attending violent and non violent social conflicts.
This is to better understand the processes leading to a more desirable human condition. This contrasts with war studies polemologydirected at the efficient attainment of victory in conflicts. Disciplines involved may include political sciencegeographyeconomicspsychologysociologyinternational relationshistoryanthropologyreligious studiesand gender studiesas well as a variety of other disciplines.
Measurement and ranking[ edit ] Although peace is widely perceived as something intangible, various organizations have been making efforts to quantify and measure it. The Global Peace Index produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace is a known effort to evaluate peacefulness in countries based on 23 indicators of the absence of violence and absence of the fear of violence.
This index measures how fragile a state is by 12 indicators and subindicators that evaluate aspects of politics, social economy, and military facets in countries. It grades countries with 5 indicators, and pays the most attention to risk of political instability or armed conflict over a three-year period.
The most recent ledger shows that the most peaceful country is Slovenia on the contrary Afghanistan is the most conflicted nation. Besides indicated above reports from the Institute for Economics and PeaceFund for Peace, and University of Maryland, other organizations including George Mason University release indexes that rank countries in terms of peacefulness.The education sector or education system is a group of institutions (ministries of education, local educational authorities, teacher training institutions, schools, universities, etc.) whose primary purpose is to provide education to children and young people in educational settings.
non-violent ways of responding to conflict. In situations where peace processes are underway, education may also be a means of contributing tosocial transformation, for example, through reforms to the education system itself and by educating people about new arrangements for political representation, justice and policing.
IMPORTANCE OF PEACE, SECURITY, EDUCATION HIGHLIGHTED AS THIRD COMMITTEE FOCUSES ON CONCERNS OF YOUTH stressed the importance of education at all levels. of their rights a way to establish. We must continue to speak for peace and to live the way of peace; to inspire others, we must continue to think of peace and know that peace is possible.
What we dwell upon we help bring to manifestation. Education Provides a Foundation for Peace Building Education is a critical building block for the development of an inclusive, democratic society and must be a central component of U.S.
efforts to promote global security. Elaborating on the importance of schools for peace education, in the views of Harris, & Morrison (), the pedagogy of peace education should be “a philosophy and a process which caters to the skills of listening, reflection, problem-solving, cooperation and conflict resolution.