Corruption Last updated Sunday, September 04, We often hear leaders from rich countries telling poor countries that aid and loans will only be given when they show they are stamping out corruption.
The older models look like this RADAR's totally cool new ones that look like this Fetus don't fail me now To model anything - the human body, a cell, a city, etc. A great book on the subject of modeling was actually called "Consider a Spherical Cow" by John Harte see web page.
Easy to calculate numbers with, but not too realistic. Then, in abouta phantom was developed that was supposed to represent an average adult worker of the Western Hemisphere, based on the so-called and completely politically incorrect Reference Man, so dubbed by the International Commission on Radiological Protection ICRP.
OK, this did well for some time in calculating doses to adults, but in nuclear medicine as well as other applications we quickly found the need for phantoms representing other people. InCristy and Eckerman published a very important work in which they described six phantoms representing children and adults.
The adult was very similar to the Fisher-Snyder phantom, but had some minor modifications, and included some organs that the Fisher-Snyder phantom did not. All of the phantoms had both male and female organs.
The age designations were meant to be approximate - Cristy and Eckerman researched the changes of organ size, position, and composition with age and, like the Reference Man document, catalogued what they felt were the appropriate values to use as averages for that age.
Of course some children grow faster or slower than others - one can envision a 5-yr-old who is as big as the yr-old phantom; in this case, the yr-old phantom should probably be used, as what we are after is energy absorbed per unit mass doseand the important issue is probably mass.
In any case, the idea was to give a set of phantoms that would span the size of people from infancy to adultery, I mean adulthood, and which could be used to calculate dose estimates for a range of people of different sizes. By this point in our presentation about half of you are probably upset, because we are not giving enough consideration to the stronger sex.
Women were somewhat slighted in all of this, as they were slighted in the workplace for so long.
Although the Fisher-Snyder and Cristy-Eckerman phantoms had female organs, they were pretty much built around the average male for that age. The Cristy-Eckerman year-old phantom was used for many years as a surrogate for an adult female, but who wants to have a surrogate representative?
InStabin and colleagues put out a document similar to the Cristy-Eckerman document, but with a series of 4 phantoms representing the adult female - the first was just a standard adult female with several notable differences from the Cristy-Eckerman year-old phantom and the other three represented the woman at various stages of gestation, as dose to the fetus is such an important issue in both nuclear medicine and other areas.
If you want to see the SAFs for any phantom, you can check them out them here:Health Benefits of Grass-Fed Products. Meat, eggs, and dairy products from pastured animals are ideal for your health.
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