Tourist motivations

Shower facilities with or without hot water Wood for free or for sale for use in cooking or for a campfire Garbage cans or large rubbish bins in which to place refuse Camping outside a designated campsite may be forbidden by law. It is thought to be a nuisance, harmful to the environment, and is often associated with vagrancy. In the United States, many national and state parks have dedicated campsites and sometimes also allow impromptu backcountry camping by visitors.

Tourist motivations

As suggested by this notional illustration, the business sector, like the rest of society, faces a continuum of types of potential terrorist attacks, weapons, and lethality.

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This includes tactics and weaponry, and, especially, its ability to physically reach its targeted location, or, in the case of a cyber attack, to breach its IT defences.

It is also important to note that terrorist threats do not affect all businesses alike. Bigger companies, for example, especially those with extensive overseas presence, such as multinational corporations in oil and gas, automobile manufacturing, military equipment sales, hotel chains, and restaurants, may be more vulnerable to certain types of terrorist attacks than smaller and more localized companies.

In addition to the different motivations by terrorist groups to target these businesses, some multinational companies, such as hotel chains and restaurants, may present much softer targets than their more hardened automobile, oil and gas, and military sales counterparts.

Categories of Businesses Targeted by Terrorism Certain business categories are of greater risk to terrorist attack than others. These include transportation aviation, ground and maritimeenergy nuclear power, oil and gas facilities, and chemical plantsfinancial institutions such as stock exchanges and bankstourism hotels and restaurantsand retail department stores and shopping malls.

The terrorist risks to these business sectors are discussed in this section. Aviation transportation airports and aircraftground transportation trains, subways and busesand maritime transportation cruise ships and oil tankers are iconic targets for terrorists to cause economic and psychological disruption because of the potentially high kill rate.

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Aviation The aviation sector has long been targeted by terrorist groups. In the s and s, hijacking was a pervasive terrorist tactic. In response, as security has been hardened at airport terminals and aircraft especially by automatically locking cockpitsinstead of hijacking planes, terrorists have turned to other tactics such as firing shoulder-launched Stinger missiles at flying aircraft.

China, was caused by one of the pilots.

Tourist motivations

Thus, as the aviation or maritime sectors have become more secure than they were prior to Sept. Interestingly, only one attack against the transportation sector has involved a weapon of mass destruction.

Maritime The threat of maritime terrorism is particularly significant because just like ground and aviation terrorist warfare, groups that engage in maritime warfare seek to damage the overall economic well-being and sense of security of their state targets.

The international cruise industry is a potential terrorist target. To counteract such threats, the cruise industry has instituted security measures guided by regulations set forth by the International Maritime Organization IMOsuch as employing security officers and security watchmen aboard ships, restricting access to ships, maintaining security zones around ships, screening of passengers and luggage, and monitoring the supplies that are loaded onto ships.

Currently, al Qaida and its affiliates, and the Islamic State, represent the primary terrorist threats against the energy sector, although threats are also presented by other localized conflicts. In Africa, separatist rebels in Nigeria have been attacking the facilities and employees of foreign oil companies, such as Royal Dutch Shell, in the oil-rich Niger Delta.

The facilities and personnel of Western oil companies, for example, have been attacked by al Qaida and its affiliated terrorist groups in Algeria, Iraq, Kuwait, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen.

Although it was not a terrorist incident, the December 2, accident at the Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, in which water leaked into a storage tank containing more than 80, pounds of methyl isocyanate, exposed an estimatedpersons to toxic elements, resulting in 15, deaths over the years since then.

Financial Sector Financial institutions and banks have been directly targeted by terrorist groups for attack, as they regard this sector as extensions of Western economic power and dominance.

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While no high profile terrorist attacks against the banking sector have occurred in Western countries since this earlier period, banks continue to be targeted.

In many nations, tourism is a major economic sector and source of revenue, so attacking it leads to economic recession and unemployment.

Thus, in such susceptible countries, terrorist groups perceive hotels and especially Western hotel chainsrestaurants and tourist resorts as major targets for attack, as demonstrated by recent incidents.

In one of the most prominent examples, on June 26,an Islamist terrorist carried out a mass shooting at the tourist resort at Port El Kantaoui, killing 38 people, of whom 30 were British tourists.

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Even though American shopping malls have not yet faced such attacks, there is concern that a suicide attack on a single shopping mall would cause the public to consider all malls to be unsafe.

Other countries, however, have experienced mass casualty terrorist attacks against their shopping malls, notably the September 21, mass shooting attack by al Shabaab gunmen at the Westgate shopping mall in Nairobi, Kenya, which resulted in an estimated 67 fatalities and more than injured.

Conclusion As demonstrated by the discussion of the types of terrorist groups and modes of warfare that target the spectrum of business categories and their economic impact, for business executives, ranging from chief executive officers CEOs to security directors, managing and mitigating the risk from terrorism in all its manifestations is now part of their overall business decision-making process.

Managing the terrorism risk is also part of their overall management of risk to a spectrum of threats, whether man-made terrorism, active shooters, and workplace violence to natural disasters hurricanes or earthquakes.

In the case of managing their risk to terrorism, business managers need to prioritize the types of terrorist groups and modes of warfare likely to challenge their businesses and allocate appropriate protective resources in response.

Specifically, their security directors are likely aware that effective defensive and preventative responses to the challenges presented by terrorism require their enterprises to be continuously vigilant, putting in place appropriate security and risk mitigation measures and protocols and continually updating and testing their emergency response plans as these threats continue to evolve, often in unpredictable directions.

They also need to ensure that their commercial property insurance policies include, if possible, terrorism risk insurance to cover losses that might be caused by a terrorist attack. In case of a major terrorist attack, business security directors now also understand the need to implement continuity of business operations measures.

Taking on the daunting problem of how to manage the risk of terrorist attack can be systematically addressed by utilizing a risk management approach.They lie frozen in time, thousands of metres above sea level. The grim death toll on Everest is becoming impossible to ignore, says Rachel Nuwer.

Greg Richards (, ed.) Cultural Tourism in Europe. CABI, Wallingford 4 /LVW RI 7DEOHV Table Growth of museums in the UK, Table Motivations of tourists visiting Burgos Cathedral (Spain), Nottingham Castle. Dr. Joshua Sinai is a Principal Analyst at Kiernan Group Holdings, a national security and defense contracting firm, in Alexandria, VA.

USA, where he specializes in conducting studies, curriculum development, courses and training in active shooter prevention, insider threat mitigation, terrorism and counterterrorism, as well as analytical and operational subjects such as measures of.

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35, is the current number when we should produce minimum , This paper examines event tourism as a field of study and area of professional practice updating the previous review article published in

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